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Grade 6

Grade 5 Summer Math Tune-ups

Sixth Grade Summer Math Review 

The activities included on this Web page are intended to help you maintain mathematical knowledge and concepts developed throughout for sixth grade. Over the summer, please take the opportunity to review these materials and complete several activities. 

Activities are intended to be fun, provide choice and help you maintain math skills so, you arrive to seventh grade ready to pick up where we left off in June. Many of the activities are games we have played throughout the school year. In addition, there are a variety of excellent Web sites with fun puzzles, problem solving, and exciting games. I hope you have fun while you're working!

Please record the activities you complete, the date each activity is completed, and the signature of an adult on the math log.

Enjoy and have a great summer!
- Mrs. White


Must Visit Websites are Starred 

The Math Forum The Math Forum includes a wonderful Student Center which allows students to choose resources and grade level material they find challenging or interesting. A help area called Ask Dr. Math, an Internet Math Hunt, and Math Tips & Tricks, which includes BeatCalc, (beat-the-calculator game) are just a few of the wonderful resources available through this website.
A+ Math
Another student-friendly math site, A+ Math has a Game Room, online and printable Flash Cards, andAdvanced Problems. There are interactive features designed to help students learn math in an engaging way, including a Concentration game, an interactive multiplication table, fraction inequality flashcards and square root flash cards. Don't miss the Gameboard section where you can play a BINGO type game called MATHO which will help to keep brushed up on geometry.
AAA Math This website offers a great variety of brainteasers, games focusing on ratios, percents, and statistics. This website also offers many other useful mathematics links.
Brain Bashers Welcome to BrainBashers, a unique collection of puzzles, games and optical illusions. This site offers an enormous variety of puzzles, and has won over one hundred awards. BrainBashers is the world's most popular puzzle resource and is updated with illusions and games regularly and has 5 new puzzles added each week.
Fun Brain By visiting this site you can select your grade level (up to grade 8) and play a variety of computer games reviewing concepts addressed throughout the year. This site also includes great links to other mathematics sites, several of which are included in this packet.
Jeopardy Math
The following games have been created by Hardin County Kentucky Teachers for use in their classrooms, but you can use them at home! The games allow you to choose your grade level (or any grade level you would like to explore) and play the ready made Jeopardy games to test your knowledge.
British Columbia Institute of Technology
(Quite Challenging Website)
Included in this website are several famous mathematical problems from history as well as some mathematical puzzles, facts, games, and trivia. You can experiment with fractals, important numbers like pi, a salesman's travels, etc. If you are feeling particularly motivated you can create your very own pinball game based on Pascal's Triangle.
Mrs. Glosser's Math Goodies Visit the lessons section which brings you to a lesson library where you can select an area of interest or study. Click on a topic and you will be brought to lessons on the particular subject. Most effective is the application of such concepts which can be found if you go to the Challenge Exercises which are available for each concept area. In addition, the solutions are available to check your work.
The virtual town of Moneyopolis gives its new arrivals a make-believe $600 New Resident's Stake to help them get started. As town residents, students tour seven town centers, including a job center, a shopping center, a community center, city hall, and other institutions. At each center, students are given three math challenge questions. Each correct answer earns $10, plus $50 for the bonus question. The goal: to save $1,000 and earn a minimum of three Community Center Service Medallions. Math skills are correlated to the NCTM standards.
Cool Math 4 Kids
This website provides a variety of games that explore probability and "race the clock" which allows you to practice basic computation skills. There are also several IQ games and brain thinkers that foster your ability to think logically. Finally, you are also provided with the chance to build a business. This is a great activity if you are interested.

If interested in creating your own business, included below is the general description of your potential lemonade stand! Once you've read through the introduction go ahead and order your supplies by typing in and clicking on Lemonade Stand. The website will take you through several easy steps to create your own business.
Cyberchase PBS site of online math games.
Tons of Math Games Many different types of math games based on topics.
The Product Game The Product Game is a fun interactive game that excercises your skill with factors and multiples.
Math and the Simpsons Explore the variety of uses of math and connections to FOX'S hit TV show!

Lemonade Stand Introduction

Hi, and welcome to Lemonade Stand! Your goal in this game will be to make as much money as you can within 30 days. To do this, you've decided to open your own business -- a Lemonade Stand! You'll have complete control over almost every part of your business, including pricing, quality control, inventory control, and purchasing supplies. You'll also have to deal with the weather, which can be unpredictable. Unfortunately, the weather will play a big part when customers are deciding whether or not to buy your product. 

One factor which may make or break your business is the price you charge. Customers are more apt to pay higher prices when the product (your lemonade) is more in demand - When the weather is hotter. As the temperature drops, and the weather turns bad (overcast, cloudy, rain), don't expect them to pay nearly what they would on a hot, hazy day. 

The other major factor which comes into play, is your customer's satisfaction. As you sell your product, people will decide whether or not they like it, and how much they like or dislike it. As time goes on, they'll start to tell their friends, neighbors, and relatives (hence, your 'popularity'). Sell a good product for a good price, and you'll build business over time; overcharge for inferior products, and you'll be out of business sooner than you'd think. Another more direct form of customer satisfaction affecting sales takes place directly at the stand. As customers buy your product, you'll see some tell you what they think by the bubbles over their heads. If customers are enjoying their product, others are more likely to buy. If they're expressing their dissatisfaction, other customers are more likely to take their business elsewhere. If you'd like more hints and tips on running a successful lemonade stand, be sure to visit the author's homepage! =)

Games to Play

Materials Needed: Deck of Playing Cards

The Head Game - Allows you to practice addition and multiplication facts with just 3 players.
Directions: Remove all face cards (kings, queens, and jacks), then place deck of cards face down. Two players both draw one card each and place it against their head so their teammates can see it. The player who has not selected a card, either tells the players the sum or product of their addends or factors (operation is predetermined before each round). Then the two players with the cards on their heads have to figure out what number must be on their card based on the known product or sum and based on the card of their opponent. Whoever figures out their card the fastest receives that pile of cards. Continue to play game by alternating roles with your teammates until you have finished the deck.

Addition or Multiplication War - Allows you to practice addition and multiplication facts with 2 players.
Directions: Remove all face cards (kings, queens, and jacks) and the split the deck of cards in half between you and your teammate. Then place deck of cards face down. Next, you and your partner flip the top card of your pile at the same time. Whoever computes the sum or product (operation is predetermined beforehand) the fastest wins the cards. Continue to play until one player wins the entire deck just like the game War. (All the typical rules of War apply).

Least Common Multiple Game - 2 players. Practice finding the smallest common multiple of two numbers by using a deck of cards.
Directions: Remove all face cards (kings, queens, and jacks) and the split the deck of cards in half between you and your teammate. Then place deck of cards face down. Next, you and your partner flip the top card of your pile at the same time. Whoever finds the least common multiple (LCM) the fastest wins the cards. Continue to play until one player wins the entire deck just like the game War. (All the typical rules of War apply). To make the game more challenging flip two to four cards and find the least common multiple (LCM) of all the numbers.

Greatest Common Factor/Lowest Common Denominator - 2 to 4 players. Race your teammate(s) to find the greatest common factor (GCF) or lowest common denominator (LCD) of a pair of numbers.
Directions: Remove all face cards (kings, queens, and jacks) and the split the deck of cards between you and your teammate(s). Then place small decks of cards face down. Next, you and your teammates flip the top card of your pile at the same time. Whoever finds the GCF/LCD first wins the set of cards. Continue to play until one player wins the entire deck just like the game War. (All the typical rules of War apply). To make the game more challenging flip two to four cards and find the GCF/LCD of all the numbers. You can also try having each teammate flip two cards to create a two-digit number (the lower of your two cards flipped is the ones digit while the higher will be your tens digit) and then find the GCF/LCD.

Equivalent Fraction Memory - 2 to 4 players.
Directions: Make at home on index cards. Cut an index card in half. On one half write a fraction and on the other half write an equivalent fraction. Continue until you have cut approximately 10 index cards and create equivalent fractions. Now, you have a set of Equivalent Fraction Memory cards to use forever! Simply shuffle the cards, place them face down, and see if you can find the most matches - just like Memory.

Equivalent Fraction, Percent, and Decimal Memory - 2 to 4 players.
Directions: Make at home on index cards. Cut an index card in half. On one half write a fraction and on the other half write either an equivalent percent or an equivalent decimal. Continue until you have cut approximately 10-15 index cards creating equivalent fractions, percents, and decimals. Now, you have a set of Equivalent Fraction, Percent, and Decimal Memory cards to use forever! Simply shuffle the cards, place them face down, and see if you can find the most matches - just like Memory.
1/2 = 50% = 0.5

Race to Convert Improper Fractions to Mixed Numbers (in Simplest Form) - 2 to 4 players.
Directions: Two people write a number (2 to 3-digit numbers will work best) on a piece of paper. Share the numbers written with your teammates. The larger number will become your numerator while the smaller number will become your denominator (therefore creating an improper fraction). Now, see who can convert the improper fraction into a mixed number the fastest. Keep a tally of who wins each round. Whoever reaches 10 successful conversions the fastest wins.

24 - 2 to 6 players.
Directions: The game played in class if you purchase it OR the 24 can be played online ( The 24 game is one of the most popular math games available, and has been used in more than one-hundred-thousand classrooms around the world. Now you can play the 24 game on-line. HAVE FUN!

Other Great Games to Play:

Kitty Whist





(Directions for Mancala, Kitty Whist, Cribbage, and Hearts can be found below.)

Real Life Applications While You're Out and About

Bills, Receipts, or Stores:

Figure out the tip at dinner (practices percents)

Find the mean, median, and mode of the prices on a receipt from a store (grocery, clothing, etc.)

On a grocery store receipt figure out what percentage of the bill is spent on vegetable, what percentage is spent on meat, what percentage is spent on drinks, and what percentage is spent on sweets or junk food. Option: Create a pie graph using this information.

Deli counter - convert customary measurement of items purchased to metric measurement.

In the Kitchen: 
Rewrite a recipe in your kitchen for double, triple, and quadruple the amount of the original recipe.

On the Road: 
Figure out how many miles you travel during a family vacation and then compute the miles per gallon of gas your car gets.
Figure out your average traveling speed from one location to another.

Traveling or at Home:
Keep a daily weather log of the high/low temperatures for a month (or even a week or two). Then, create a bar graph, line graph, scatter plot, line plot, or stem-and-leaf diagram to organize this information. If you're feeling energetic, find the mean, median, mode, range, and outlier of the set of data.

Anywhere Activities:


Examine the environment around you (at the beach, a museum, your house, your car, etc.) and identify lines of symmetry, tessellations, different types of polygons, acute, obtuse and right angles, etc.

Guess My Number

Here's a simple exercise that can be played almost anywhere, anytime (great car game!). Think of a three to four digit number that your child is comfortable understanding. It might be thousands or ten thousands, it might be 4,925. Give your child mathematical clues to help him/her guess the number. For example, if your number is 22, you might say "I'm thinking of a number that is..."
and then, depending on your child's comfort level:
" less than 29" "...two more than 20"
"...eleven doubled" "...the next even number after 20" etc.
The beauty is that it can be catered to your child's own level. Then trade roles!

Vacation Scavenger Hunt

  1. A coin having a date earlier than either of your parent's birth dates.
  2. A label from a can of soup costing less than $.55
  3. A tessellation (tiling)
  4. A food item weighing 454 grams
  5. A license plate whose digits add up to more than 27
  6. 4 ticket stubs from anywhere you go this summer
  7. A bar graph showing the number of hours you watched TV or videos in any five-day period this summer
  8. A map of somewhere you travel to this summer with the route drawn on it
  9. An object those length is over 3 feet and under 5 feet
  10. An item you bought on vacation that was under $3.00
  11. A food item with a cylindrical shape
  12. A true fact containing a number having more than 8 digits. Include the name of the source (book, newspaper, web site) you used
  13. The average age of the members of your family. (Add up everyone's age and divide by the number of people in your family. Round to the nearest whole number.)
  14. An object shaped like a pentagon
  15. The circumference of the largest tree in your yard.
  16. The population of Acton
  17. The speed limit on Route 2 in Acton
  18. The number of years in a tricentennial
  19. A list of 10 things that always come in pairs
  20. The shape of the gazebo behind the Marlborough Tavern
  21. A rubbing from a gravestone dated in the 19th century or earlier
  22. The sum of the digits in your phone number including 860 multiplied by the number of meters in a kilometer
  23. A pictograph of the kinds of vehicles you ride in this summer. Use stickers, clip art, pictures you draw. Include vehicles such as bicycles, train, plane, tractor, car, bus, wheelbarrow, etc.
  24. A water toy that weighs 8 ounces or less
  25. The perimeter and area of a picture of your pet or your dream pet.

Directions of Games That Will Keep Your Brain Thinking

Kitty Whist Rules 
Whist is a card game meant for four players. The game is played using a standard deck of cards with jokers, and ace can be ranked highest or lowest depending on the winning bid. Our version of the game allows for one to four players to play, while untaken player positions are controlled by the CPU.

The player who created the game starts dealing the first hand, the second hand is dealt by next player to the left and so on. Thirteen cards are dealt to each player and the three last cards are placed on the table face down - this is called the kitty.

The player to the left of the dealer starts the bidding. The player can bid seven to 13, Solo, Nil Solo or On Table. The bid 7 - 13 indicates how many tricks the player and a possible teammate must take. Solo, Nil solo and On Table are played without a teammate - the player may only get one trick if playing Solo and none if playing Nil solo or On table. If playing On Table the player must place the hand on the table for everybody else to see after the first trick is played. Other players are not allowed to discus what to play.

When playing Solo, Nil solo or On Table, aces are the lowest card.

If the player bids 7-13, the player gets the opportunity to extend their bid. The extra bids are:

NormalPlayer selects the trump suit.

HalfTeammate selects the trump suit. If the player has teamcard or teamcard is in the kitty, the player selects the trump suit.

FlipTrump-suit is selected by flipping cards one at a time from the kitty, the player stops flipping when the card flipped is of the suit wanted for trump-suit, if the player flips all three cards in the kitty, the last cards suit is trump-suit.

SansThere are no trumps.

ClubsClubs are trumps.

When the first player has bid the next player can try to beat it or bid pass. If a player beats the bid and the first player didn't pass, the first player can now try to beat the second player's bid. The bidding continue until one player has won. More than one player can play Solo or Nil Solo, but only one player can play On Table.

The bids are ranked as follows: seven, eight, nine, Solo, 10, Nil Solo, 11, On Table, 12, 13. 13 Clubs is highest possible bid. Solo is beaten by 9 Half, Nil Solo by 10 Half and On Table by 11 Half.

Selecting Teamcard
If the winning bid is not Solo, Nil Solo or On Table, the player who won the bid must now select a teamcard. The suit of teamcard can not be the same as trump, except when playing Flip.

If a player has all the aces, the player can select a king as teamcard. If a player has all the aces and kings, the player can select a queen, and so on.

Selecting Trump
If the winning bid is not Solo, Nil Solo or On Table and the extra bid is not Sans or Clubs, a trump suit must now be selected.

If an extra bid is Half, the teammate must select trump. The teammate is the player who has the teamcard. If the teamcard is in the kitty or the player who won bid has it on the hand, the player himself must select trump suit.

If an extra bid is Flip, the player who won the bid must flip kitty to determine trump suit. The player flips the first card in the kitty and decides if the card's suit is trump-suit. If not, the player flips the next card and so on. If all three cards in the kitty are flipped, the suit of the last card flipped is the trump-suit.

Trading Cards
If playing Solo or Nil Solo, the player(s) who got the bid can now trade cards from the kitty. The player must trade three cards or none, if more than one player is playing Solo or Nil Solo, the next player, playing Solo or Nil solo, can now trade cards.

If playing Half the player who selected trump can trade cards in the kitty, again the player must trade three cards or none.

By any other bid, the player who won the bid can trade cards.

Selecting Substitution-Card
If the player who selected the teamcard - and the extra bid is not Half - doesn't have any cards in the teamcard-suit the player can select a substitution card. This card is placed backface-up on hand and can be played as a card in the teamcard-suit. The card is played backface up and can not be seen by any one. If the player does not select a substitution-card, the player can not make a play to the teammate. Selecting a substitution-card is also an indication to the other players that the player is void in the teamcard-suit.

Playing Cards
The player to the left of dealer starts the hand. In the first trick the joker cannot lead the trick and if a team card is played in the first trick it cannot be trumped. A player must follow suit if possible, otherwise the player can trump or play any card. The teamcard must be played the first time the teamcard-suit is played. The player who won the trick leads the next trick.

In subsequent tricks any card can lead the trick, and a teamcard can be trumped.

Taking A Trick
The highest card in the leading suit takes the trick if it is not trumped, otherwise the highest trump takes the trick.

A joker played as a first card in a trick cannot be beaten by any card, including a trump. Jokers have no value if not played as the first card in a trick.

If the player plays their substitution-card, it is the lowest card in the teamcard suit, and can only take a trick if it is the first and only card in suit and it is not trumped.

Winning The Hand
If the player bid seven, eight, nine, 10, 11, 12 or 13 and the player and their teammate got at least the corresponding number of tricks, the player and teammate win the hand. If the player bid Solo and got none or one trick, or played Nil Solo or On Table and got no tricks, the player wins the hand. If the player and the teammate got less than their bid they lose the hand. Players also lose the hand if they bid Solo and got more then one trick, or bid Nil Solo or On table and got any tricks.

Winning The Game
Four hands played make up one game, the winner(s) of the game are all players with a positive score. If all players have zero points the game is a tie.

A set of symbols are used to illustrate what's happening in the game.

Raised hand.The symbol is followed by the bid the player has made. After the first trick is played the symbol only appears on the player who won the bid. If playing Solo or Nil Solo, more than one player can have the bid.

Handshake.The symbol is followed by the teamcard suit. If the suit is not followed by a letter, the teamcard is an ace.

Crown.The symbol denotes the trump suit. If the crown symbol does not appear the game is Sans (no trump) or trump is not used in a bid (Solo, Nil Solo or On Table).

Hand of cards.The symbol is followed by the number of tricks a player has taken.

Single cards.Symbols for teamcard and trump suits. The symbols follow the teamcard-symbol and trump-symbol.

First card raised (opponent's hand).The player is playing with a substitution card and is void in teamcard suit.

One card showing backface (own hand).You are playing with a substitution-card, the card can be played as a teamcard suit.

Hearts Rules

Hearts is a four-player card game. The game is played using a standard deck of cards (52 cards, no jokers). Our version of the game allows for one to four players to play, while untaken player positions are played by the CPU.

The object 
The main object of the game is to avoid receiving penalty points. In addition to hearts, the queen of spades is a penalty card: Hearts count for one penalty point each while the queen of spades counts for 13. Thus the focus of play is to avoid taking the queen of spades.

Playing the game 
Ace is high.

After the deal each player must select three cards from his or her hand to pass to an opponent. The cards must be selected before looking at the cards being received from an opponent. The direction of the pass alternates for each deal:

The first deal is passed left. 
The second deal is passed right. 
The third deal is passed across. 
The fourth deal has no pass and players are stuck with what they are dealt. 
The opening lead is made by the player holding the two of clubs. Each player after the lead must follow suit, if they can. If they can't, they may play any card(s)they desire. Tricks are won by the highest card played of the suit led. The winner of a trick leads the next. Hearts cannot be led until hearts have been broken (a heart has been discarded on a previous trick). If a player only has hearts in their hand, they can lead a heart even if they have not been broken.

Once the hand is over, players get points for each penalty-rewarding card in the tricks they took.

When nobody shoots the moon (as described below), the points taken by each player are added to their running total on the scoreboard.

Shooting the moon 
If a player takes all 13 hearts and the queen of spades, this player scores 0 points and all other players score 26 points.

Winning the game 
The winner of the game is the player with the lowest score, when one or more players have reached a total of at least 100 points. If two or more players have the same score when this happens, additional hands will be played until a distinct winner can be declared.

Mancala Rules

Collect the most stones in your mancala (mancalas are the large bowls at each end of the board).

Set up
Place 4 stones in each small bowl. Do not place stones in the mancalas. Set aside any extra stones (you will not use these). Place the board between the players, with the mancalas on the left and right. To play, use the general rules plus one of the other sets of rules.

General Rules
Each player "owns" the mancala on his right and the six small bowls closest to him (see Diagram 1). Player 1 starts by scooping up all the stones from one of his small bowls (players may never start from a mancala or from the opponent's six bowls). Player 1 drops one stone into the next bowl on the right, one stone into the second bowl on the right, continuing around the board (counterclockwise) until he has no more stones in his hand. If Player 1 reaches his own mancala, he drops a stone into it. Players do not drop stones into their opponents' mancalas, they skip them and continue dropping stones, one at a time, from their hand until they run out of stones. Players take turns moving. At the end of the game, players count the stones in their mancalas - the player with the most stones wins.

Egyptian Rules
Use all General Rules. If a player drops the last stone from his hand into his mancala, he gets to move again. If a player drops the last stone into one of the empty bowls on his side of the board, he takes that stone, plus all the stones in the opponent's bowl directly across from his bowl and places them in his mancala. The game ends when one player no longer has stones in his small bowls. The other player (who still has stones on his side) places all remaining stones into his own mancala (it is not necessarily an advantage to be the first player to empty the six bowls).

Ethiopian Rules
Use all General Rules and all Egyptian Rules. Players may choose to move either to the right or to the left on each turn. Players may never start from a bowl with only one stone.

Nigerian Rules
Use all General Rules, except that players must drop a stone into opponents' mancalas when passing them. When a player drops the last stone from his hand into a bowl on either side of the board that is not empty and does not now (after dropping the stone) have 4 stones, that player picks up all the stones from the last bowl a stone was dropped into and continues play. A player's turn is over when he drops the last stone from his hand into: 1. a mancala; 2. an empty bowl; or 3. a bowl that now (after dropping the stone) has 4 stones. Any time during a move that a bowl has 4 stones, regardless of who dropped the fourth stone into the bowl, the player who owns that bowl puts these stones into his own mancala (in 3. above, the player puts these stones into his mancala before ending his turn). For example, while Player 1 is dropping stones into the small bowls on Player 2's side, he drops a stone into a bowl that already has 3 stones. Player 2 picks up the 4 stones and puts them into his own mancala. The game ends when one player cannot move (no stones remain in that player's six bowls). The remaining stones on the other player's side are not placed in a mancala, and are not counted in determining a winner.


Six Card Cribbage is basically a game for two players, but adapts easily for three players, and for four players in fixed partnerships - a very useful feature. It is now the standard form of Cribbage and widely played in English speaking parts of the world.

Cribbage in England is primarily a pub game - indeed, it is one of the few games allowed by Statute to be played in a public house for small stakes. A game of low animal cunning where players must balance a number of different objectives, remain quick witted enough to recognise combinations, and be able to add up, it is perhaps not the most obvious of games to be so firmly associated with the English pub. It is a game where experience counts for a great deal - though luck, of course, has a large part.

It is also a game where etiquette is important. The rituals associated with cutting and dealing, playing and pegging, as well as the terminology, all serve the useful purpose of keeping things in order - and they help to give the game a flavour of its own. In card playing, as with food, authenticity matters.

Two-handed play
Two players use a standard 52 card pack. Cards rank K(high) Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 A(low).

To be the first to score 121 points or over (twice round the usual British design of board) accumulated over several deals. Points are scored mainly for combinations of cards either occuring during the play or occuring in a player's hand or in the cards discarded before the play, which form the crib or box.

Board and Pegs
The score is kept by means of a board and pegs. Starting at one end of the board - usually to the left of the first dealer - players peg their scores as they occur using their two pegs alternately: the forward peg shows the player's latest score, and the rear peg shows the previous score.

When a player scores, the rear peg is moved in front of the forward peg by the same number of holes as the score to show the new total. This enables scores to be easily checked and acts as a visible statement of the progress of the game. Players peg up on the outside of the board and back on the inside. The winner is the first to peg out by exceeding 120.

The exact design of the board is not critical. The diagram shows the type of board most commonly used in Britain. In North America they come in a great variety of shapes. The essential feature is a track for each player with holes representing the numbers from 1 to 120.

The first deal is determined by cutting the cards. The player cutting the lower card deals and has the first box or crib. If the cards are equal - and that includes both players cutting a ten card (10, J, Q or K) - there is another cut for first deal. The deal then alternates from hand to hand until the game is over.

It is usual to play best of three games. The opponent of the first dealer in the first game deals first and gets the first box in the second game. For the third game - if a decider is needed - there is a fresh cut to decide who deals first.

The dealer shuffles, the non-dealer cuts the cards [but see variations], and dealer deals 6 cards face down to each player one at a time. The undealt part of the pack is placed face down on the table. At the end of each hand, the played cards are gathered together and the whole pack is shuffled by the new dealer before the next deal.

Each player chooses two cards to discard face down to form the crib. These four cards are set aside until the end of the hand. The crib will count for the dealer - non-dealer will try to throw cards that are unlikely to make valuable combinations, but must balance this against keeping a good hand for himself. Dealer, on the other hand, may sometimes find it pays to place good cards in the box - especially if they cannot be used to best advantage in hand.

Start Card
Non-dealer cuts the stack of undealt cards, lifting the upper part without showing its bottom card. The dealer takes out the top card of the lower part, turns it face up and, after non-dealer replaces the upper part, places it face up on top of the pack. This turned up card is called the start card. It is not used during the play of the cards but in the show it will count for combinations as part of both players' hands as well as of the dealer's box.

If the start card is a jack, the dealer immediately pegs 2 holes - this is called Two for his heels.

Play of the cards
Beginning with the non-dealer, the players take turns to play single cards. You play your own cards to form a face-up pile in front of yourself, keeping them separate from the other player's cards. In this stage of the game the total pip value of the cards played by both players is counted, starting from zero and adding the value of each card as it is played. This total must not exceed 31. When no more cards can be played without going over 31, the count is restarted from zero. The pip values of the cards are:

Ace = 1; 2 to 10 = face value; jack = 10; queen = 10; king = 10.

As each card is played, the player announces the running total - for example the non-dealer plays a king and says "10", the dealer plays an 8 and says "18", the dealer plays a jack and says "28", and so on. If a card is played which brings the total exactly to 31, the player pegs 2 claiming Thirty one for two as he does so.

A player who cannot play without exceeding 31 does not play a card but says Go, leaving his opponent to continue if possible, pegging for any further combinations made (see below). Bringing the total to exactly 31 pegs 2, but if the total is 30 or less and neither player can lay a card without going over 31, then the last player to lay a card pegs one for the go or one for last.

The cards that have been played are turned over and a fresh round of play starts with the cards remaining in the players' hands in exactly the same way. The opponent of the player who played last in the previous round (scoring Thirty one for two or One for last) plays first in the new round. This second round of play starts again from zero and again continues until neither can play without going over 31. The last player again scores "1 for last" or "31 for 2", and if either player has any cards left there is a further round. Play continues for as many rounds as necessary until both players' cards are exhausted. Towards the end, it may happen that one player has run out of cards but the other still has several cards. In that case the player who still has cards simply carries on playing and scoring for any combinations formed until all his cards have been played.

Example: Player A has king-king-2-2; player B has 9-8-7-6.

First round: A plays king - "10"; B plays 6 - "16"; A plays king - "26"; B says "go"; A plays 2 - "28"; A plays 2 - "30 for 3". A pegs 3, namely 2 for the pair of twos and 1 for playing the last card of this round.

Second round: B plays 8 - "8"; A has no cards left so cannot do anything; B plays 7 - "fifteen two" (B pegs 2 points); B plays 9 "24 for 3 and 1 for last" (B pegs 4 points: three for the run 7-8-9 and one for playing the last card).

Please note: it is never possible to score "one for last" and "31 for 2" at the same time. They are alternatives. If you make exactly 31 for two points just peg those two points - you do not get an additional "one for last" in this case.

Tactical note: It is often worth keeping low cards in hand for this phase of the game, especially when there is a strong possibility of being able to peg out before one's opponent.

Scoring during the play A player who makes any of the following scores during the play pegs them immediately.

15If you play a card which brings the total to 15 you peg 2 claiming Fifteen two.

31As mentioned above, if you play a card which brings the total to exactly 31 you peg 2.

PairIf you play a card of the same rank as the previous card (e.g. a king after a king) you peg 2 for a pair. Note that (for example) a 10 and a queen do NOT make a pair even though they are both worth 10 points.

Pair RoyalIf immediately after a pair a third card of the same rank is played, the player of the third card scores 6 for pair royal.

Double Pair RoyalFour cards of the same rank, played in immediate succession. The player of the fourth card scores 12.

RunA run or sequence is a set of 3 or more cards of consecutive ranks (irrespective of suit) - such as 9-10-jack or 2-3-4-5. Note that ace is low so, for example, ace-king-queen is not a run. The player of a card which completes a run scores for the run; the score is equal to the number of cards in the run. The cards do not have to be played in order, but no other cards must intervene.
Example: cards are played in the following order: 4-2-3-5-6. The player of the 3 scores 3 for a run, then the player of the 5 scores 4, and the player of the 6 scores 5. Another example: 4-2-3-4-3. The player of the first 3 scores 3 for the run 4-2-3. Then the player of the second 4 score 3 for the run 2-3-4. The player of the second 3 scores nothing because the 3 does not complete a run.
Another example: 4-2-6-5-3. The final 3 scores 5 points for a 5-card run. Nothing is scored before then, because there is no run until the 3 is played.

Last CardIf neither player manages to make the total exactly 31, whoever played the last card pegs 1.

Note that to score for pair, pair royal, double pair royal or run, the cards must have been played consecutively during a single round of play. If one player had to say "go" while the combination was being formed, the combination is still valid, but if both players are unable to play, causing a new round of play to be started from zero, all combinations are started afresh.

Example 1: Player A has 10, 10, 9, 6; player B has 7, 6, 5, 4.

A plays 9, B plays 6 (scoring fifteen two), A plays 6 (scoring two for a pair), B plays 5. The total is now 26; A has to say "go", so B plays 4, scoring three for a run, plus one for last. The A begins again with 10, B plays 7, and A plays the other 10, scoring one for last.

Example 2: Player A has 10, 8, 7, 5; player B has 7, 6, 5, 4.

A plays 8, B plays 7 (scoring fifteen two), A plays 7 (scoring two for a pair), B plays 6. The total is now 28; neither can play, so B scores one for last. If A now begins again with a 5, A does not score for a run, because the 7 and 6 were played in the previous round of play (before the total was reset to zero).

The Show
Players now retrieve the cards that they put down during the play and score for combinations of cards held in hand. First the non-dealer's hand is exposed, and scored. The start card also counts as part of the hand when scoring combinations. All valid scores from the following list are counted.

15Any combination of cards adding up to 15 pips scores 2 points. For example king, jack, five, five would score 10 points altogether: 8 points for four fifteens, since the king and the jack can each be paired with either of the fives, plus 2 more points for the pair of fives. You would say "Fifteen two, fifteen four, fifteen six, fifteen eight and a pair makes ten".

PairA pair of cards of the same rank score 2 points. Three cards of the same rank contain 3 different pairs and thus score a total of 6 points for pair royal. Four of a kind contain 6 pairs and so score 12 points.

RunThree cards of consecutive rank (irrespective of suit), such as ace-2-3, score 3 points for a run. A hand such as 6-7-7-8 contains two runs of 3 (as well as two fifteens and a pair) and so would score 12 altogether. A run of four cards, such as 9-10-J-Q scores 4 points (this is slightly illogical - you might expect it to score 6 because it contains two runs of 3, but it doesn't. The runs of 3 within it don't count - you just get 4), and a run of five cards scores 5.

FlushIf all four cards of the hand are the same suit, 4 points are scored for flush. If the start card is the same suit as well, the flush is worth 5 points. There is no score for having 3 hand cards and the start all the same suit. Note also that there is no score for flush during the play - it only counts in the show.

One For His NobIf the hand contains the jack of the same suit as the start card, you peg One for his nob.

NineteenIt is impossible to score nineteen in hand or in box. If you think you have, then you should either stop playing or stop drinking. Nineteen is proverbially used as a term to indicate a worthless hand.

Note that when scoring a hand, the same card may be counted and scored as part of several different combinations. For example if your hand is 7 8 8 K and the start card is a 9 you score Fifteen 2, fifteen 4, and a pair is 6, and a run is 9 and a run is 12 - 12 holes to peg, with each of your 8s forming part of a fifteen, a pair and a run.

After non-dealer's hand has been shown and the score pegged, dealer's hand is shown, scored and pegged in the same way. Finally the dealer exposes the four cards of the crib and scores them with the start card. The scoring is the same as for the players' hands except that a flush in the crib only scores if all four crib cards and the start card are of the same suit. If that happens the flush scores 5.

Muggins (optional rule)
If a player, when scoring his hand or the crib, overlooks some points, then after the player has announced the total and scored it, his opponent can call "muggins", and peg the points himself. Some people apply the same rule if a player fails to claim a combination scored during the play. Some Americans call this version of the game "cutthroat" cribbage, and play that you don't have to say anything - you just wait until the opponent finishes pegging the points they have noticed and then silently peg the rest of their points yourself.

Winning the game
As soon as someone reaches or passes 121, that player wins the game. This can happen at any stage - during the play or the show, or even by dealer scoring two for his heels. It is not necessary to reach 121 exactly - you can peg out by scoring 2 more when you were on 120 and still win. All that matters is that your opponent's pegs are both still on the board.

Additional Directions: